Chip on Board (COB) LED's are multiple LED chips (typically nine or more) bonded directly to a substrate by the manufacturer to form a single module. In a COB, chips can be mounted such that they take up less space and the highest potential of the LED chips can be obtained. The light emitting area of a COB LED can contain many times more light sources in the same area that standard LEDs could occupy resulting in a greatly increased lumen output per square inch. The ceramic/aluminum substrate of COB LEDs also acts as a higher efficiency heat transfer medium when coupled to an external heatsink, further lowering the overall operating temperature of the lighting fixture.